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CHEMLIST: EECDS Risk Phrases

Risk phrases (R-phrases), as used in the EC Dangerous Substances Classification, Packaging, and Labeling list (EECDS), contain one or more numeric codes that denote special risks associated with the substance. The risk indicated by each number code is given in Annex III to Commission Directive 67/548/EEC.

Example:

Styrene (CAS Registry Number 100-42-5) is on the EC Dangerous Substances list with the following risk phrase: "R: 10-20-36/38". The special risks indicated by the number codes are: (a) Flammable, (b) Harmful by inhalation, and (c) Irritating to eyes and skin.

The following is the full listing of these number codes and their associated risk statements. Two or more number codes in a risk phrase are separated by hyphens. When number codes are separated by a slash, it indicates a combined risk statement covering all the component number code risks. These combinations and their associated risk statement are also given in the listing below.

R 1 - Explosive when dry.
R 2 - Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition.
R 3 - Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition.
R 4 - Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds.
R 5 - Heating may cause an explosion.
R 6 - Explosive with or without contact with air.
R 7 - May cause fire.
R 8 - Contact with combustible material may cause fire.
R 9 - Explosive when mixed with combustible material.
R 10 - Flammable.
R 11 - Highly flammable.
R 12 - Extremely flammable.
R 14 - Reacts violently with water.
R 15 - Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.
R 16 - Explosive when mixed with oxidizing substances.
R 17 - Spontaneously flammable in air.
R 18 - In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture.
R 19 - May form explosive peroxides.
R 20 - Harmful by inhalation.
R 21 - Harmful in contact with skin.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 23 - Toxic by inhalation.
R 24 - Toxic in contact with skin.
R 25 - Toxic if swallowed.
R 26 - Very toxic by inhalation.
R 27 - Very toxic in contact with skin.
R 28 - Very toxic if swallowed.
R 29 - Contact with water liberates toxic gas.
R 30 - Can become highly flammable in use.
R 31 - Contact with acids liberates toxic gas.
R 32 - Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas.
R 33 - Danger of cumulative effects.
R 34 - Causes burns.
R 35 - Causes severe burns.
R 36 - Irritating to eyes.
R 37 - Irritating to respiratory system.
R 38 - Irritating to skin.
R 39 - Danger of very serious irreversible effects.
R 40 - Possible risks of irreversible effects.
R 41 - Risk of serious damage to eyes.
R 42 - May cause sensitization by inhalation.
R 43 - May cause sensitization by skin contact.
R 44 - Risk of explosion if heated under confinement.
R 45 - May cause cancer.
R 46 - May cause heritable genetic damage.
R 48 - Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.
R 49 - May cause cancer by inhalation.
R 50 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms.
R 51 - Toxic to aquatic organisms.
R 52 - Harmful to aquatic organisms.
R 53 - May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
R 54 - Toxic to flora.
R 55 - Toxic to fauna.
R 56 - Toxic to soil organisms.
R 57 - Toxic to bees.
R 58 - May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment.
R 59 - Dangerous for the ozone layer.
R 60 - May impair fertility.
R 61 - May cause harm to the unborn child.
R 62 - Possible risk of impaired fertility.
R 63 - Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.
R 64 - May cause harm to breastfed babies.
R 65 - Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed.
Combination Number Codes
R 14/15 - Reacts violently with water, liberating extremely flammable gases.
R 15/29 - Contact with water liberates toxic, extremely flammable gas.
R 20/21 - Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin.
R 20/22 - Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed.
R 20/21/22 - Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 21/22 - Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 23/24 - Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin.
R 23/25 - Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed.
R 23/24/25 - Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 24/25 - Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 26/27 - Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin.
R 26/28 - Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed.
R 26/27/28 - Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 27/28 - Very toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 36/37 - Irritating to eyes and respiratory system.
R 36/38 - Irritating to eyes and skin.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
R 37/38 - Irritating to respiratory system and skin.
R 39/23 - Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation.
R 39/24 - Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin.
R 39/25 - Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed.
R 39/23/24 - Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin.
R 39/23/25 - Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed.
R 39/24/25 - Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 39/23/24/25 - Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 39/26 - Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation.
R 39/27 - Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin.
R 39/28 - Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed.
R 39/26/27 - Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin.
R 39/26/28 - Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed.
R 39/27/28 - Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 39/26/27/28 - Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 40/20 - Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation.
R 40/21 - Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin.
R 40/22 - Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects if swallowed.
R 40/20/21 - Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin.
R 40/20/22 - Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed.
R 40/21/22 - Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 40/20/21/22 - Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 42/43 - May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact.
R 48/20 - Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation.
R 48/21 - Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin.
R 48/22 - Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed.
R 48/20/21 - Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin.
R 48/20/22 - Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed.
R 48/21/22 - Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 48/20/21/22 - Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 48/23 - Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation.
R 48/24 - Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin.
R 48/25 - Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed.
R 48/23/24 - Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin.
R 48/23/25 - Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed.
R 48/24/25 - Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 48/23/24/25 - Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
R 51/53 - Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
R 52/53 - Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.